Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine. Titanium industrial production did not begin earlier than 1950. At that time, titanium was recognized for its strategic importance on light weight and ability to produce strong and lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engine, missile or spacecraft) military use, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, paper), automotive, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental instruments and files, dental implants, jewellery, mobile phones and other applications.
As element was first identified in 1791 by W. Gregor. In 1795 MH Klaproth named it "Titan" after the mythology’s Titans.
The element occurs in some mineral deposits, rutile and ilmenite in particular, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and is found in almost all living creatures, rocks, water or soil accumulation, as the ninth most abundant metal in land and the fourth most abundant structural metal.
Due to its high corrosion resistance to sea water, titanium is used to make propeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants; in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and for divers' knives. Titanium is used to manufacture the housings and other components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for scientific and military use.
Experiments have shown that only after 4000 years would produce a corrosion depth of 0.1 mm.
The use of titanium alloys instead of special steels leads to a considerable reduction of building weight, a great advantage in aviation. In aircraft construction, titanium and its alloys are used to carrying heavy elements required of the fuselage of the jet engine parts, the armor plates for the weapons. Due to its good resistance to low temperatures, the use of titanium in the construction extends rocket fuel and liquid oxidants with temperatures between -195 ° C and -250 ° C.